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What’s the Purpose of Egg and Embryo Donation?

Egg and embryo donation are the two ways to help the infertile couple in conceiving a baby, using donors.

Egg donation is a procedure in which the eggs from another woman are fertilized with the sperms of an intended father in a laboratory and the resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus of the intended mother.

Embryo donation is a process in which another couple’s embryo is implanted in the uterus of the intended mother during IVF. Embryo donation is for the couples where both partner needs egg and sperm donation, or it can be used by a single woman who cannot use her own eggs.

How the procedure of an egg and embryo donation does works?

The process of egg and embryo donation starts with finding a healthy and fertile donor whom couples can find at Fertility Centre Nepal as we have a large database of egg and embryo donors.

Egg donations procedure can be performed using egg donors or egg sharers:

•    Egg donors are women who donate their eggs to an infertile woman and they are not receiving any fertility treatment themselves. They just choose to donate their eggs to help other women to whom they might don’t know.

•    Egg sharers are women who will be undergoing for fertility treatment and will donate some of their eggs as part of their IVF cycle.

Embryos donation is usually done by the couples or women who successfully have their babies with them and they wish to donate their left-over embryos from their IVF cycle to other couples who wish to start their family.

The egg and embryo donors are paid for their services by Fertility Centre Nepal as they are doing great jobs and helping the couples in conceiving their babies.

The fertility experts at Fertility Centre Nepal hire the egg donors under the age of 30 years because the chances of pregnancy are more with younger eggs as compared to the older ones.

We at Fertility Centre Nepal properly examine and screened all egg donors for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and some genetic conditions such as cystic fibrosis, before they donate their eggs to someone else. Also, we provide the egg donors who are closely matched with the recipient couple for characteristics such as her color of hair, eye color, occupation, etc.

In the cases of egg and embryo donation, the woman who is giving birth to the child is a legal mother. Your partner will be the other legal parent if you are married or in a civil partnership. If not, then you need to sign legal parenthood consent forms before we proceed with egg or embryo donation procedure.

How fertility experts perform egg and embryo donation procedures?

a)    Embryo Donation: During IVF the extra embryos get developed which the couples can use in their future if they want more children. These embryos are usually kept in storage for up to 10 years. Sometimes couples decide that they do not want more children and decide to donate their embryo to the clinic to help other couples in conceiving a baby.

If you are the recipient of the donated eggs then your fertility expert will transfer only one or two embryos from the donated embryo into your uterus through your cervix by using a thin fine tube called catheter. This process will happen between two and six days after fertilization.

If more than two embryos are transferred then there is a chance of risk of having multiple pregnancies. Your fertility expert will discuss with you about the number of embryos he/she will transfer so that you will be able to achieve the success against the risk of multiple pregnancies.

If everything goes well then at least one of the embryos will stick to your uterine wall and continue to grow. You need to visit Fertility Center Nepal for pregnancy test after two weeks of embryo transfer. If you do become pregnant through embryo donation then your fertility expert will monitor the growth of the fetus in your womb carefully until the baby delivery.

b)    Egg Donation: Egg donation is a process where your and egg donor monthly cycles need to be synchronized. After that, the fertility expert both will give hormones to make sure this happens. This hormone will be given so that at around the time your womb lining is able to support an embryo and your donor needs to be ovulating at that particular time.

The fertility expert will give some fertility drugs to egg donor as well so that she will be able to proceed more healthy and mature eggs for fertilization. When the eggs are ready, the fertility expert will remove them using a fine hollow needle.

On the same day when the eggs are collected from your donor, your partner needs to provide a semen sample which will be mixed with the donor eggs in a laboratory if you opted for standard IVF. Or if opted for ICSI then one active sperm of your partner is injected into each egg. Two days later, any fertilized eggs become a ball of cells called an embryo.

Your fertility expert then transfers this embryo into your womb through your cervix by using a fine this tube called catheter. This happens between two days and six days after fertilization. As donors are under the age of 30 years, it has been recommended that only one embryo need to be transferred in the uterus of intended mother to avoid multiple pregnancies.

What are the advantages of using an egg or embryo donor?

The advantages of using donor eggs and embryo are for those couples who are unable to produce healthy eggs and hence they are not able to conceive a baby naturally. By using donated eggs or embryo will increase your chances of conceiving a baby. According to the study, the success rates for donor egg and embryo IVF is high as compared to regular IVF because donor eggs are always from young women.

Ovulation induction Treatment

What is Ovulation and the things you need to know about your Ovulation Cycle?

Ovulation is a process which happens usually once in every menstrual cycle in which hormone changes and ovaries are triggered to release an egg. A woman can only become pregnant if a sperm fertilizes an egg. The time when women usually ovulate is 12 to 16 days before her next period starts. The eggs which are contained in women ovaries out of multiple eggs one of the eggs grow and mature in the first part of each menstrual cycle.

The time when women approach ovulation her body starts producing an increased amount of hormone called estrogen. This hormone causes the lining of women uterus to thicken and help to create a sperm friendly environment. These high levels of estrogen will trigger a sudden increase in another hormone which is known as luteinizing hormone (LH). The LH surge causes the release of the mature egg from the woman ovary and this entire procedure is known as ovulation. The ovulation occurs usually after 24 to 36 hours of the LH surge and this is the reason that the LH surge is a good predictor of peak fertility. The egg of the woman can only be fertilized for up to 24 hours after ovulation, however, if it is not fertilized after 24 hours of ovulation then the lining of the womb is shed which means the mature egg is lost and women period begins. Once the period begins women need to wait for the next menstrual cycle and repeat the process again.

Things you need to know about your ovulation cycle

The followings are the several things which you should know about your ovulation cycle and these are:

a)    What happens at the time you ovulate?

At the time of your ovulation each month one of your ovaries will release a mature egg, which will travel into one of the woman’s fallopian tubes. The uterus lining is thick in case the egg is fertilized. The fertilized egg then will travel down to the women uterus and settles in the rich lining. The egg will only survive for 12 to 24 hours. If the women egg is not fertilized then the egg will be lost and women periods will start.

b)    What are the most fertile days?

According to the study, it has been found that most of the women are most fertile in the first five days before ovulation and on ovulation day itself. There are many cases where the cycle lengths vary and ovulation occurs 14 days prior to the women next period begins. It is difficult to know exactly when the egg will be released; however, the men sperm can stick around for up to seven days after you have sex and this is the best time for you to conceive. Having regular sex from Day 11 to Day 16 where you need to count the first day of your period as Day 1.

c)    How women can track their ovulation time?

The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal suggest the best way for the women to confirm when she ovulates is with an ultrasound in the hospital or clinic, or also they can track their ovulation time with hormonal blood tests at home.

•    Basal body temperature (BBT) charting: With the help of basal thermometer women can track her each morning throughout her cycle to record its changes. Ovulation is confirmed after the women temperature has stayed elevated from her baseline for three days.

•    Ovulation predictor kits (OPK): These kits are easily available over-the-counter (OTC) at any drugstore. The ovulation predictor kit will detect the presence of LH in the women urine and you will be able to ovulate within the next couple of days after the result line is as dark as the control.

•    Fertility monitors: These are also easily available over-the-counter (OTC), however, they are little expensive as compared to ovulation predictor kit. The fertility monitors are best because with this women can track two hormones i.e. estrogen and LH which help her to identify the six days of her fertile window.

d)    What if the women are not ovulating regularly?

If the women track her ovulation from one month to the next month and she will be able to notice that either she is not ovulating regularly or in some cases, they are not ovulating at all. This is a time when she needs to speak to her fertility specialist and start with the treatment.

Although there are certain things like stress or improper diet which can also impact the exact day of ovulation from month to month or there can be medical conditions as well like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or amenorrhea that may make woman’s ovulation irregular or stop completely.

These are the conditions which may also cause other symptoms related to hormonal imbalances which include excess facial or body hair, acne, and even infertility.

e)    Are women are able to get pregnant when they are on their period?

Yes, there are some cases where women are able to get pregnant even when they have on their period. It has been found that the men sperm can live in the women fallopian tubes for five or six days. If you are a woman with a short cycle say around 22 days instead of 28 days or you have long periods and you did sex on the last day of your periods in such cases, the sperm could survive until the women egg is released during her ovulation. The fertility experts at the Fertility Center Nepal says that it is important to note that there are cases where some women have bleeding in their mid-cycle and they mistakenly think that it’s their period. You should keep in mind that spotting and ovulation can happen at the same time. Also, keep in mind that if you are off from birth control pills after being on hormonal contraceptives for many years then it will take a while for your natural cycle to regulate as normal.

infertility and how it is treated

What Causes Infertility and How it is Treated?

Causes of Infertility in Men

The following are the causes that affect the men fertility which stops him to become the father these are:

•    Poor or unhealthy functioning of men sperm which includes the quality of his sperm. By the quality of sperm, it means that how well and quick the men sperm move and travel to meet the woman’s egg.

•    Varicocele is a condition in which veins inside man’s testicles gets large and causes them to overheat.  This heat may affect the number or shape of the sperm.

•    The quality of men sperm can be affected if there is any bacterial infection inside the man’s testicles such as sexually transmitted infection (STI).

•    Cancerous or non-cancerous growths.

•    Imbalance or changes in hormones.

•    Tubes which carry the sperms of man are blocked.

•    Genetic disorders.

•    Medicines, especially those treating cancer, fungus, and ulcers.

•    If a man has undergone for any surgery like vasectomy which prevents sperm from leaving the testicles.

•    Regular intake of alcohol, drugs, and smokes.

•    Exposure to industrial chemicals and heavy metals.

•    Radiation and X-rays.

•    The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal advise the men not to wear tight underwear or pants as it can overheat the men testicles which cause infertility. It can also happen by using a hot tub for extended periods.

Causes of infertility in Women

The following are the causes that affect the women fertility which stops her to get pregnant and these are:

•    A process in which the women egg leaves her ovary and travels to meet the men sperm which is known as ovulation period. But in some cases, women face difficulty while ovulating every month and this makes harder for her to become pregnant.

•    Women need proper functioning of her fallopian tubes, ovaries, and uterus to get pregnant. If any of these her organs are not working properly it can contribute to women infertility.

•    Disease and disorders which include endometriosis. Endometriosis is a disease or disorder in which women uterine tissue grows outside her uterus or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which women have enlarged ovaries that contains fluid-filled sacs.

•    If women period stop before the age of 40 years will cause infertility in women which make difficult for her to get pregnant. It may be tied to her immune system disease, cancer treatments, or a genetic syndrome.

•    If she has undergone any cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy which affects her fertility.

•    Regular intake of smoke, alcohol and other drug make pregnancy difficult for women.

•    Medicines, especially those treating cancer, fungus, and ulcers.

•    If women are planning to get pregnant then her weight should be according to her body mass index (BMI) as overweight or underweight can also affect the woman’s fertility which decreases her chances of conception. So, it is advisable to maintain an ideal weight to conceive a baby.

•    Uncontrolled diabetes, autoimmune diseases in which your body attack itself, celiac disease, etc. can make pregnancy difficult for a woman.

What fertility tests required for men?

The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal suggest the following tests to be done to check infertility in men and these are:

a)    Semen Analysis: Your fertility expert will ask for one or more semen specimens. Generally, semen can be obtained by masturbating or by interrupting intercourse and you can ejaculate your semen into a clean container. The laboratory person will analyses your semen specimen.

b)    Hormone testing: Your fertility expert will ask you for the blood test so that they are able to determine the level of testosterone and other male hormones.

c)    Imaging: There are certain cases in which imaging studies required such as a brain MRI, bone mineral density scan, Transrectal or scrotal ultrasound may be performed.

d)    Genetic testing: The purpose to perform genetic testing to determine whether there is a genetic defect which causes infertility in men.

What fertility tests required for women?

The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal suggest the following tests to be done to check infertility in women and these are:

a)    Ovulation testing: This can be tested through a blood test which measures the levels of hormones to determine whether you are ovulating or not.

b)    Ovarian reserve testing: With the help of this test your fertility expert will able to check the quality and quantity of the eggs available for ovulation. This approach can also begin with hormone testing early in the menstrual cycle.

c)    Hysterosalpingography: Hysterosalpingography is a test which evaluates the condition of your fallopian tubes and uterus and also looks is there any blockages or other problems. Your fertility expert will also perform an X-ray which will be injected into your uterus. The X-ray is taken to determine if the cavity is normal and to ensure that the fluid spills out of your fallopian tubes.

d)    Another hormone testing: This test is performed to check the levels of ovulatory hormones, as well as pituitary hormones which control your reproductive processes.

Infertility Treatment for Men

a)    Medications: The men infertility can be treated by using certain medications which increase testicular function, including sperm production and quality.

b)    Surgery: Your fertility expert will perform surgery to reverse a sperm blockage and restore fertility.

c)    Sperm retrieval: With the help of this technique your fertility expert will able to obtain sperm when there is no sperm are present in the ejaculated fluid.

Infertility Treatment for women

a)    Ovulation with fertility drugs: Your fertility expert will give you some fertility drugs which are one of the best treatments for women who are infertile due to ovulation disorders. These medications will help in regulating or inducing ovulation.

b)    Intrauterine insemination (IUI): IUI is a first line infertility treatment in which your fertility expert will place the healthy sperm of men directly into your uterus around the time when your ovary releases one or more eggs to fertilize. Depending on the reasons for infertility, the timing of the IUI treatment will be coordinated with your normal cycle or with fertility medications.

c)    Surgery: If you are dealing with the uterine problems such as endometrial polyps, intrauterine scar tissue or a uterine septum then these conditions can be treated with hysteroscopy surgery.

How people can boost their fertility

How People Can Boost Their Fertility?

When you are thinking about getting pregnant to boost your fertility you need to evaluate your lifestyle choices. Starting healthy habits or getting rid of bad ones can improve your overall health. And some lifestyle changes may promote fertility in both you and your partner.

How to improve male fertility?

It is important for the male member to have healthy sperm when they are planning to conceive a baby, but your sperm may only be as healthy if you are healthy. The following are the ways through which you can maximize the quality and quantity of sperm that your body produces and these are:

a)    Stop smoking: It has been found that the men who smoke tend to have lower sperm counts, and the sperm which they produce may not be properly formed. The fertility experts will advise the male member to quit smoking at least prior to 3 months of the fertility treatment.

b)    Reduce alcohol consumption: If you are an occasional drinker then it will not harm sperm production, however, if you frequently drink this can lower testosterone levels, reduce sperm count and cause erectile dysfunction. So, it is always better to reduce your alcohol consumption before you plan a fertility treatment.

c)    Lose weight: According to the study, obesity is the major factor that affects male fertility in many ways. Your excess body weight can cause hormone changes and this will reduce your fertility. It has been found that male member has lower sperm count and the sperm don’t move quickly enough.

d)    Avoid drugs: The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal suggest the male member avoid illegal drugs as it will impact their fertility. The consumption of cocaine and marijuana reduces the number and quality of your sperm, and anabolic steroids can shrink your testicles. If you consume some legal drugs such as herbal supplements then you need to speak to your fertility expert to make sure they don’t impact sperm production.

e)    Avoid the heat: According to the study you need to elevated temperatures, especially around your scrotum which may reduce sperm production. The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal will limit your time in hot tubs and saunas and also they ask you to avoid tight-fitting pants and placing your laptop directly on your lap during use.

f)    Practice safe sex: It has been found that unprotected sex, especially with multiple partners can increase your chances of getting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Men infected with an STD may experience fertility problems such as low sperm count, poor sperm movement and sperm DNA fragmentation.

How to improve female fertility?

Most of the women are aware that it is important to make a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy; however, you may be less familiar with lifestyle choices which can improve your fertility.

The following are the healthy habits that may increase your chances of getting pregnant and help you set the stage for a healthier pregnancy:

a)    Stop smoking: If you are a woman who smokes then you need to quit your smoke it affect your ovaries and you are not able to produce good quality of eggs for fertilization. It also harms your cervix and fallopian tubes and increases risk chances of ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage.

b)    Limit your caffeine intake: According to the study, too much consumption of caffeine will affect your fertility. So, the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal would suggest you limit your caffeine intake to 200 mg per day, especially when you are trying to conceive. The 200mg per day caffeine is equivalent to about two to eight-ounce cups of coffee per day.

c)    Maintain body weight: The fertility experts at the Fertility Center Nepal will suggest you maintain your ideal body weight as obesity can harm your health in several ways, including interfering with your ovulation. However, if you are an underweight woman then also you are at increased risk for ovulation problems. Whether you need to overweight or underweight you need to focus on a healthy body mass index (BMI) to help maintain normal ovulation.

d)    Practice safe sex: If you have unprotected sex, especially with multiple partners will increase your chances of getting the disease like chlamydia or other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). These are the infections which permanently damage your fallopian tubes and uterus and you are unable to carry a baby for the full term.

e)    Reduce alcohol consumption: The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal suggest the women quit the consumption of alcohol during her pregnancy as frequent drinking before pregnancy is linked to ovulation disorder which means you are not able to conceive a baby. So, if you are trying to get pregnant, try to avoid alcohol completely.

Tips for both partners to improve fertility

The following are the tips which help you both to tackle with your infertility and these are:

a)    Change your diet: It means that you have a busy schedule due to which you consume packed food and the result is that your body will not get the sufficient nutrients which require at the time of conception. It is better to have cooked meals at home and consume fresh fruits. Besides nourishing your body, you also need to shed your excess weight and gain energy.

b)    Exercise: Moderate physical activity, such as walk, light yoga, etc. can help you to maintain your body weight and also ease your stress. The women who take part in frequent, intense exercise may experience ovulation problems for them the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal will suggest limiting vigorous activity.

c)    Manage stress: In this busy world, none of us can avoid stress; however, the couples who are trying to get pregnant can cause extra worry or anxiety, especially if one or both of the partners. If you feel stress and you realize that it is affecting your health or your relationship, then speak to our counselor or psychologist they will help you with coping from stress so that you can enjoy your fertility treatment journey and give birth to a healthy baby.

3 Ways to get Fertility Treatments

3 Ways to get Fertility Treatments

There are many couples who are not ready to conceive a baby immediately after their marriage, but the time when they plan to have a baby it becomes difficult for them to conceive. According to the study, the majority of couples will get pregnant within one year of regular unprotected intercourse; however, for the 15 to 29% of couples who struggle with infertility and negative pregnancy tests month after month can be frustrating for them. With the advancement in medical science, there are various fertility treatments are available to couples who need some extra help conceiving a baby.

The following are the 3 ways which help you in conceiving your baby and these are:

a)    Diagnosis of infertility: Schedule an appointment with a gynecologist if you are unable to conceive a baby even after a year of regular unprotected intercourse. Your doctor will evaluate the way you live and your sexual habits. After reviewing you and your partner your doctor may recommend some changes in sexual habits, and you will be entering a period of trial and error to see if your infertility problems can be resolved without invasive treatments. You may also undergo testing to determine if there is a physical cause for infertility which can be:

•    Women who were facing an issue with their monthly cycle and have not menstruated in six months or they are above the age of 30 years, they need to schedule an appointment to receive a diagnosis of infertility as soon as they suspect they are having trouble in conceiving a baby.

•    Men who are dealing with low or poor sperm count and women who had the previous history of recurring miscarriages, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, pelvic pain or unusual menstrual cycles need to consult a doctor before they begin trying to conceive a baby.

b)    Determining the cause of infertility: Consult with your doctor to determine the necessary tests which help in finding the cause of infertility and also that whether men or women or both are dealing with the cause of infertility. Your doctor may recommend both partners be tested depending on each person’s medical history. A medical history evaluation can help your doctor in prioritizing your treatment based on your medical report.

•    Women may undergo physical and ultrasound examinations and the doctor will also conduct the hormone testing, as well as another testing that is specific to women reproduction. Hysterosalpingography is a test in which your doctor injects fluid into the uterus of the women and after that, your doctor will use an X-ray to determine if the fluid proceeds to the fallopian tubes without encountering any damage or blockage. Your doctor may also recommend a laparoscopy, which is typically an outpatient procedure and it will be performed under general anesthesia. A laparoscopy is a procedure which allows your doctor to view inside your uterus and fallopian tubes by using a tiny fiber-optic telescope. They also recommend women to undergo genetic testing as it also gives some insight into what is causing the women fertility.

•    Like women, men also may undergo a general physical examination as well as an ultrasound examination to ensure the sexual organs are functioning properly. Y doctor will recommend you to have a semen analysis which will determine the number and quality of your sperm. Your doctor will also recommend having a blood test which helps in evaluating your hormone levels.

c)    Proceed with fertility treatments: After also tests are completed plan your fertility treatment with your fertility expert starting with the least invasive treatment first.

•    Your fertility expert will give you some fertility drugs which help hormone levels to get back on track and these are available for both men and women. The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal often recommend hormone therapy where the cause of infertility is unknown, even after testing. Hormone therapy may also be used in conjunction with another treatment.

•    The patients who deal with blockage and scarring within their reproductive system, for them the fertility expert recommend surgery as the best and permanent resolution. They recommend surgery for the patients with fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis or genetic defects.

•    Artificial insemination is a solution to unexplained infertility. This is a procedure where the fertility expert will inject a concentrated amount of sperm directly into the women uterus during her ovulation. This is a simple fertility treatment given by the fertility experts at the Fertility Center Nepal when there is no known medical reason found which is preventing the couple from conceiving a baby.

•    If less invasive fertility treatment get failed to provide a successful outcome then artificial reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), zygote intrafallopian transfer etc. are the treatments which will fulfill the dreams of many infertile couples. For men who are dealing with low sperm count or low sperm motility for them, the best treatment is Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in which your fertility expert will directly inject a single active sperm into harvested mature eggs. In some cases, the woman is unable to produce viable eggs, in such condition your fertility expert will suggest the egg donation treatment where they will borrow the eggs from healthy and fertile women under the age of 30 years and fertilized her eggs with the male member sperm to facilitate fertilization.

If women face an issue with her uterus and unable to carry pregnancy then the best option is surrogacy where a healthy and fertile woman will carry the baby in her womb for nine months and hand-over the baby to his/her intended parents after baby born.

•    The men who all are dealing with the issues such as premature ejaculation or impotence for them medication can help in addressing these problems and increase the chances of the couple’s to become pregnant.

•    With the advancement in fertility management, there are wide varieties of fertility drugs are available for the women who are not able to ovulate their own. The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal may prescribe some medications which help women to stimulate her ovaries and produce more mature and healthy eggs for fertilization.

How many types of infertility are there

How Many Types of Infertility are There?

There are 2 types of infertility:

(i)    Primary Infertility: Primary infertility is a type of infertility which refers to those couples who are not able to get pregnant after having regular intercourse for more than 1 year.

(ii)    Secondary Infertility: This refers to the couples who are able to get pregnant once but for the second time they are not able to conceive a baby.

Causes of Infertility in women

The following are the causes of female infertility:

  • When there is a blockage or damage to women fallopian tubes which result from the pelvic inflammatory disease that is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions.
  • Endometriosis is another cause of female infertility where the endometrial tissue grows outside of the women uterus which may affect the function of women ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities which mean there is an issue with opening the women cervix. Non – cancerous (benign) tumors which are presented in the uterine wall and may cause infertility by blocking women fallopian tubes.
  • When women dealing with ovulation disorders which affect the release of her eggs from the ovaries. This is a condition of hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The women menstrual cycle can also be affected when there is too much thyroid hormone or too little thyroid are presented. Other causes which may affect the women fertility is excessive exercise, eating disorders, injury or tumors.
  • When women are dealing with early menopause which means her ovaries stop working and her menstruation ends before the age 40 years. According to the study, this is an unknown cause of female infertility. There are certain factors that are associated with early menopause such as immune system diseases, genetic conditions, etc.

Causes of Infertility in men

The following are the causes of male infertility:

  • If the male member is unable to deliver the sperm due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation; certain genetic diseases, blockage in his testicle; or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.
  • If there is any damage due to cancer and its treatment which includes radiation or chemotherapy. Cancer treatment can impair sperm production and sometimes it is very severe.
  • The men fertility can also be affected by the overexposure to certain environmental factors, which includes pesticides and other chemicals, and radiation. Smoking, alcohol, marijuana or other medications, such as antibiotics, anabolic steroids, etc. can also affect the men fertility. Excessive exposure to heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs may affect the production of sperm.
  • If there is an abnormal production of sperm or the sperm function is affected due to undescended testicles, genetic defects, and health problems such as diabetes or infections will affect the male member fertility. If men have enlarged veins in his testes, this can also affect the quality of sperm.

Treatment of female infertility

The following are some common treatments to treat the female infertility factor and these are:

a) IVF: At Nepal Fertility Center, the fertility expert recommends the IVF treatment which is the first line treatment. This is a procedure in which your fertility expert will collect the eggs from women ovaries and mix them together with the sperms of her husband to facilitate the fertilization. Once the fertilization takes place, the resulted embryo will be placed into the uterus of the intended mother.

b) IVF with Egg Donor: The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal use this procedure for those couples where the female member is unable to produce enough mature eggs for fertilization. In this procedure, the fertility experts will borrow the eggs from healthy, fertile and young women who are under the age of 28 years and will fertilize her eggs with the sperms of the intended father to facilitate the fertilization. Once the fertilization occurs, the fertility expert will place the resulted embryo into the uterus of the intended mother and will continue to monitor the growth and the development of the fetus.

c) IVF with Surrogacy: This is a procedure which is usually recommended to those female members who are unable to carry a pregnancy in their own womb due to some medical illness. With the help of this procedure the couple will have their own baby as the fertility expert will fertilize the eggs of the surrogate mother with the sperm of intended father and after that she will place the resulted embryo into the uterus of surrogate mother who will carry the baby until full term and once the baby born she will hand-over the baby to his/her intended parents.

Treatment of male infertility

The following are some common treatments to treat the male infertility factor and these are:

a) ICSI: ICSI is an ART is a procedure in which the fertility expert will directly insert a single mature and healthy sperm into each egg of the women which help the couple in conceiving a baby.

b) Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT): This is the male infertility treatment where the fertilization will occur naturally and the fertility expert at Fertility Center Nepal will directly place the best-selected sperm inside the women fallopian tubes.

c) Hormonal treatment: The fertility expert will first recommend the male member to undergo for the hormone replacement before they suggest any surgery to them. With the help of the hormone replacement treatment fertility experts will able to treat the condition of male infertility which has been caused by the high or low levels of hormones.

d) Surgery: The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal will recommend the surgery as the last option when all other non-surgical treatments are failed to provide the desired results. The fertility expert will then perform surgery where they will extract the sperms by using the thin fine needle from the Testicle which is known as Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) or Epididymis, known as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). In case, the fertility expert is unable to retrieve enough sperm through these two techniques then they will use other advanced technology which is testicular sperm extraction TESE. Once the sperms are retrieved, the fertility expert will mix them with the women egg to form an embryo and once the embryo gets developed the same will be placed into the uterus of the female partner.


assisted reproductive technology (ART)

What Are the Different Types of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)?

Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are the treatments which are used to assist people in achieving a pregnancy. At Fertility Center Nepal, we have various ART treatments depending on the cause of infertility. The following are the types of treatment that may be suggested to the people who were struggling to conceive a baby naturally and these are:

a) Ovulation induction: Ovulation induction is a treatment which generally the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal recommend to those women who are not at all ovulating or are not ovulating regularly. Ovulation induction involves taking a hormone medication which will be taken in the form of tablet or injection and it stimulates the production of the follicle-stimulating hormone. This encourages the development of one or more follicles. When the follicles are large enough your fertility expert will be administered another hormone which releases the egg from the follicle. If the couple has intercourse around this time then the chances of their conception are highly increased.

b) Artificial insemination: Artificial insemination is also known as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and this treatment is mainly used to treat women who have normal and healthy fallopian tubes, however, they are unable to conceive a baby. This may be due to difficulties during intercourse, for example, a man is unable to achieve an erection after trauma or surgery. Artificial insemination is a treatment which is used when semen has been frozen due to a male partner’s absence or prior to cancer treatment.

The artificial insemination is a procedure where the male partner semen will be inserted through the female cervix and into her uterus at or just before the time of her ovulation. This procedure will be performed during a natural menstrual cycle. If women are still unable to achieve pregnancy after a few attempts of artificial insemination then the other best options are IVF or ICSI.

c) Donor conception: There are several ways of donor conception is used at Fertility Center Nepal such as sperm donor, egg donor, and embryo donor.

  • Sperm Donor: The sperm donor can be used when a male partner is unable to produce the good quality of sperms, does not able to produce normal sperms or there is a high risk of passing the genetic disease to the baby born. In such cases, the best option is the sperm donor which can be used by single women or women with same-sex. The procedure of sperm donor is similar to artificial insemination.
  • Egg donor: Egg donor is a treatment which the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal performed when women are unable to produce good quality of eggs, experience miscarriages or they have the high risk of passing a genetic disease to a baby born. In such cases, the best option is the donor eggs which will be borrowed by a healthy, fertile and young woman under the age of 28 years and will be fertilized by the sperm of the intended father or donor sperm to facilitate fertilization.
  • Embryo donor: Embryo donor can be used by the couple if they require both sperm donor and egg donor to achieve a pregnancy. There are many people who choose to donate their frozen embryos which are left out after their IVF procedure so that other couples who require the embryos to create their family can use them. When the recipient woman is ready, embryos are thawed and transferred to her uterus.

d) IVF (in-vitro fertilization): IVF is a procedure which is useful for those women who have blocked or damaged fallopian tubes and are unable to conceive a baby. In IVF, the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal will collect the women eggs and mix them with the sperm of intended father or donor sperm. The eggs and sperms are then placed in a culture dish in a laboratory which allows the egg to fertilize. Once the fertilization occurs your embryologist will transfer the best-chosen embryo into your uterus. Sometimes while performing IVF there are chances that multiple embryos are developed your IVF clinic will freeze those embryos with your permission for later use.

e) GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer): GIFT is a more natural version of IVF where the eggs will not fertilize in a culture dish in a laboratory. GIFT is a procedure where the fertility experts will retrieve the women eggs from her ovaries and inserted them between two layers of sperm in fine tubing. After that, they fed this tubing into one of the woman’s fallopian tubes, where the egg and sperm are left to fertilize naturally. Nowadays, the GIFT procedure is very rarely used. However, this can be sometimes used as an option for couples who do not wish to undergo for IVF and the fallopian tubes of women are in working condition.

f) ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection): ICSI is a procedure which is mainly used to treat the male infertility factor where the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal will directly inject the single sperm into women each egg to facilitate fertilization and once the fertilization takes place the resulted embryo will be placed into the women uterus to achieve successful pregnancy.

g) Surrogacy: Surrogacy is a procedure which is used by those women who face difficulties in carrying a baby in their womb due to some medical illness with their uterus. In such cases, a surrogate mother is hired and she will carry the baby in her womb and hand-over the baby to his/her intended parents after the baby born. The surrogacy is of two types (i) gestational surrogacy and (ii) traditional surrogacy.

(i) Gestational surrogacy is a procedure where the eggs and the sperms of intended parents are fertilized together and the resulted embryo will be placed into the uterus of the surrogate mother. In this case, the surrogate is not the biological mother of the baby born as her eggs were not used for fertilization.

(ii) Traditional surrogacy is a procedure where the fertility expert will collect the eggs of donor or surrogate mother and fertilize them with the sperm of intended father to facilitate fertilization. Once the fertilization occurs the resulted embryo will be placed into the uterus of the surrogate mother.

common signs for women not being able to conceive a baby

What are the common Signs for Women not being able to Conceive a Baby?

The following are the common signs due to which women are unable to conceive a baby and these are:

a) Irregular Periods: When women begin with her menstruation having irregular periods can be normal. As it takes the body a while to get regulated. Once the women have passed her teenage years then her monthly cycles should be regular as irregular periods can be a red flag for infertility problems and may be a sign of an ovulation problem. There are several things that cause irregular periods. For e.g., polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes due to which a woman has her irregular cycles and ovulation-related infertility. Other possible causes for irregular periods include primary ovarian insufficiency, low ovarian reserves, thyroid dysfunction, body weight, and excessive exercise.

b) The rate of Miscarriage: Infertility is a disorder of hormone which usually associated with the inability to get pregnant. However, a woman who had experienced recurrent miscarriages needs extra assistance in getting pregnant. Miscarriage is very common and it occurs in 15 to 20% of pregnancies, however, repeated miscarriage is not common. Only 1 to 2% of women will miscarry three pregnancies in a row. If you are a woman who had two successive miscarriages then you need to speak to your doctor.

c) Painful or heavy periods: It has been found that most of the women experience cramps during their periods, however, painful periods can interfere with your daily life and this can be a symptom of endometriosis.

d) No Periods: There are many women who do not have periods at all and the factors like stress or heavy workouts can cause your period to temporarily disappear. No having the regular periods is not good and affects your fertility it’s a time for you to get your fertility checked by experienced fertility experts.

e) Hormone Fluctuations: Hormone fluctuations in women indicate the potential issues with her fertility and women need to speak to their doctor if they experience the following:

  • Reduced sex drive
  • Skin issues
  • Facial hair growth
  • Weight gain
  • Thinning hair

f) Pain during sex: There are many women who have experienced painful sex throughout their lives and they convinced themselves it’s normal, however, it’s not. Painful sex can be related to hormone issues, to endometriosis, or to other underlying conditions that affect the women fertility and reduce her chances of getting pregnant.

g) Obesity: According to the study, obesity is the major factor which stops women to conceive a baby as if affects the growth of women eggs in her ovaries due to which she is unable to get pregnant. So, the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal advice the women to maintain their ideal body weight according to her body mass index (BMI) to achieve the successful outcome of the treatment.

What are the common signs for men infertility?

The following are the common signs due to which men fertility get affected and these are:

a) Hormonal imbalance: According to the study, the man’s fertility is linked with his hormone health. So, if there are any changes in his virility can often be governed by hormones and this could indicate issues with his fertility. Testosterone is a key hormone for male fertility, so if a male member facing an issue with the testes that produce this hormone may lead to infertility. Two hormones are the signal to the testes that make sperm and testosterone which is luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. The pituitary gland produces these hormones, so any problems that men face with this gland may also influence his infertility.

b) Pain or swelling in testicle: It has been found that there are several different conditions that could lead to pain or swelling in the men testicles and many of which could affect the fertility of men.

c) Problems with an erection: There are many male members who face difficulty in maintaining an erection which is often linked to his hormone levels. Reduced level of hormones may result in infertility and men faces challenges in conceiving.

d) Problems with ejaculation: According to the study, an inability to ejaculate is a sign that men’s fertility is getting affected and this is a high time they need to visit a doctor.

e) Small testicles: The tests are where the man’s sperm live so testicle health is paramount to male fertility. A small or firm testicle is an indication of infertility and men need to consult a medical practitioner or a fertility expert.

f) Obesity: Obesity is a factor which highly affects the men fertility as it affects the production of sperms in testicles due to which it is not able to fertilize with women eggs. So, the fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal advice the male members to maintain their ideal body weight when they plan to have a baby.

g) Other risk factors: Other risk factors which affect the fertility of both men and women are:

  • Consumption of alcohol
  • Age of men and women
  • Smoking
  • Poor diet
  • Stress
  • History of sexually transmitted infections

When to See a Doctor?

The person who experiencing signs and symptoms of infertility and trying to conceive a baby for more than 12 months without any protection and unable to conceive a baby need to speak to the doctor. Also, the couples who have reached at the age of 35 years need to speak to the fertility expert if they are unable to make the conception happen naturally. At Fertility Center Nepal we have a highly qualified and skilled professional with more than 30 years of experience who diagnose each individual and then suggest the treatment which helps them in conceiving a baby.

Sometimes you can just make some simple ways to make your lifestyle adjustments to improve your fertility, while other underlying causes may require treatment.

Even after your infertility has been diagnosed, there are still many ways to conceive a baby that you can discuss with their doctor.

fertile or infertile

How Couples can Identify Whether they are Fertile or Infertile?

It has been found that the couples who have been trying to get pregnant without any medications or have experienced several miscarriages then this is a sign that one of you or both of you may be infertile. This can be very stressful for couples, so it is important to know what stops you getting pregnant.

What are the risks factors that affecting women fertility?

The following are some risks factors that affect the women fertility and these are:

a) Age of women: The more you grow older the less are the chances of conceiving a baby. This is because the eggs in your ovaries start decreasing with increased age. In addition to that, various other medical disorders that come with progressing age can further affect your chances of having a baby. Generally, the women chances of conception will be reduced by 3 to 7% every year after the age of 30 and there will be a higher reduction after the age of 40.

b) Monitor menstrual problems: Your abnormal period could be a sign of infertility. So in that case you need to monitor the amount of bleeding you experience during every period, the length of the bleeding, the normal cycle you have, etc. are the symptoms that accompany your period. A regular period is that occurs on the days you expect it to come, and you have bleeding for only three to seven days. The signs like menstruating a lot, too little or a bleeding variation, etc. are the signs of an irregular period. Experiencing severe menstrual cramps should be considered an abnormality.

c) Body weight and skin changes: Your unexplained weight gain can be a cause of infertility and you may experience several health issues which include polycystic ovarian syndrome, type-2 diabetes, or hypothyroidism (it is a decreased functioning of the thyroid gland). Women who deal with polycystic ovaries and type-2 diabetes also noticed some skin changes.

  • Your body weight more than your body mass index (BMI) will reduce your chances of getting pregnant.
  • Increase in facial hair, oily skin, acne and skin tags which might be developed from dark brown to black and raised skin patches on the face, neck, underarms, back and below the breasts.

d) Medical disorders: Other medical disorders may also affect your chances of becoming pregnant. There are chances that your body produce some anti-sperm antibodies which damage the men sperm due to which you are unable to get pregnant. There are several conditions that can lead to infertility and these are type-2diabetes, hypertension, hyperthyroidism, pituitary tumors, tuberculosis, anemia, folic acid deficiencies, cancers, history of abdominal or pelvic surgery, etc. can affect your fallopian tubes.

e) Unhealthy lifestyle: Smoking cigarettes, consumption of alcohol, etc. can lead to hormonal imbalances in women and affect her fertility. It could also cause miscarriages, fetal birth defects, and premature birth. If you are a smoker then you need to quit smoking as it cause of your fertility.

f) Infections: It has been found that infections may cause infertility. These infections may results in blockage of your fallopian tubes, affect your egg production, and also cause the sperm to become unable to impregnate your eggs. The bacterial infections may change your cervical mucus consistency which can lead to infertility. There are various other infections that reduce your chances of becoming pregnant which include pelvic inflammatory disease, infections in your ovaries, infection in your fallopian tubes or uterus.

What are the risks factors that affecting men fertility?

The following are some risks factors that affect the men fertility and these are:

a) Abnormal ejaculation and sperm count: Your abnormal ejaculation would result in low sperm count or total absence of sperm in your semen. This abnormal ejaculations and unhealthy sperms can result in infertility and this is generally due to an arising issue in your seminal vesicles which produce the sperms and hormonal imbalances. Your enlarged testicular veins or varicocele can lead to abnormal sperm development and this will result in around 30% of infertility cases in men.

b) Monitor erectile dysfunction: Erectile dysfunction is another name of impotence and this is a cause which affects around half of the male population across the world. It can be a result of psychological factors or inherent medical disorders. According to the study around 70 to 80% of erectile dysfunctions are due to medical causes. Some of the common causes are stress, guilt, hypertension, heart disease, hormonal imbalance, pelvic surgery, etc.

c) Medical condition: According to the study there are various underlying medical conditions which can affect your hormone levels and can also affect your sperm count which increases the chances of infertility. These conditions could be anemia, type-2 diabetes, hypertension, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, pituitary disorders, hypothyroidism, testicular torsion, hydrocele, obesity etc.

d) Infections: The study says that there are various infections that can be a cause of male infertility and these are tuberculosis, mumps, brucellosis, influenza, etc. The sexually transmitted disease (STD) such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc. can be a reason for low sperm count and sperm motility. Some STDs are the disease that can lead to blocking of the male epididymis which transports the sperms to the seminal fluid and can lead to infertility.

e) Unhealthy lifestyle: It has been found that there are some of the few lifestyle choices and habits which can lead to decreased sperm count and these are:

  • Unhealthy eating habits, such as junk food, packed food, lacking in zinc, vitamin C and iron, etc. can affect your sperm count.
  • If you wear tight underwear can also lower your sperm count by increasing the scrotal temperature.
  • Smoking cigarette and excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to hormonal imbalances which result in low sperm counts and infertility.
  • An excess amount of stress at your work or at home can also affect your sperm count and hormonal balance.
  • Excess consumption of steroids also results in infertility from testicular shrinkage and extreme or heavy exercises may also lead to infertility in men.


How does age affect women fertility

How Does Age Affect Women Fertility ?

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A woman is born with all the eggs she is going to have in her lifetime. The age of women eggs gets decrease with her increased age. This is the reason that age is an important factor which affects women fertility. According to the study, good health of the women can improve the chance of her to get pregnant and having a healthy baby, however, it does not override the effects of age on the woman’s fertility.

Earlier the women who are in their early to mid-20s have around 65 to 75% of chances of getting pregnant every month but now with the change in scenarios women are busy with their careers, prefer late marriages etc. due to which they start planning the baby in their mid-30’s where generally women fertility starts declining and the decline speeds up after the age of 35. By age 40, the chance of women to get pregnant in any monthly cycle is dipped down to around 20 to 25%.

Generally, people have a misconception that IVF treatment can overcome age-related infertility in women; however, the increased age of women also affects chances of success with IVF. It has been found that the chance of a live birth resulting from one IVF cycle for women of different ages varies from each other. At Fertility Center Nepal, we have fertility experts who make the pregnancy possible for the women above the age of 40 years in one IVF cycle and there are some women who are under the age of 35 have gone through more than 2 IVF cycles to achieve the pregnancy.

The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal advice the older women to use the donated eggs from young, healthy and fertile women to increase her chances of pregnancy.

How long it takes a woman to get pregnant depending on her age?

The study says that 8 out of 10 of couples where the women are under the age of 40 years will get pregnant naturally within a year of having regular unprotected sex for every 2 to 3 days.

It has been found that the couples who are having regular unprotected sex:

  • Around 7 out of 10 women at the age of 30 years will conceive a baby within one year.
  • Around 5 out of 10 women at the age of 35 years will conceive a baby within one year.
  • Around 3 out of 10 women at the age of 40 years will conceive a baby within one year.

The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal says that there are several other causes for fertility problems, but sometimes we are unable to find the exact cause and this is known as unexplained infertility. Unexplained infertility is rare when the woman is in her 20s but becomes the most common cause of infertility in women over 35 years of age.

At Fertility Center Nepal we have treatments like IVF (in vitro fertilization) which help the women who are facing difficulties in conceiving a baby.  It is important for you to meet your gynecologist if you haven’t conceived after a year of trying or within six months of trying to conceive if you are over 36 years.

If you are dealing with any other health concerns related to your fertility for e.g. endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid problems, etc. then you should consult your doctor at an early stage when you found the symptoms.

It is important to know for everyone that age is not the only thing that affects your fertility, other things like smoking, alcohol, use of other drugs, obesity and sexually transmitted diseases, etc. can also impact your ability to get pregnant.

If you are not ready in your mid-20’s to conceive a baby and thinking about having a baby later in your life then try not to get too stressed as it impacts the age of your fertility.

What if the male partner is older?

According to the study, men’s age also affects the ability to have a baby as it declines with age, but not as much as women’s.

It has been found that it becomes difficult to get pregnant for a woman if the age of the male partner is above 40 and female age is also over 40 years.

Other reasons why older men may have less chance of pregnancy are as follows:

  • Poor quality or low quality of sperm
  • Abnormal shape of sperm
  • The lower level of male sex hormones
  • Less interest in sex

How does the age of women affect pregnancy?

It has been found that most women over the ideal age of childbearing have healthy pregnancies and babies; however, complications in pregnancy such as miscarriage also increase with their increased age.

The rate of miscarriage occurs in women around:

  • 1 out of 10 pregnancies in women younger than the age of 30 years.
  • 2 out of 10 pregnancies in women between the age group of 35 to 39.
  • 4 out of 10 pregnancies in women older than the age of 45 years.

Women who are over the age of 40 years are at higher risk of problems in pregnancy which includes the following:

  • Diabetes and high blood pressure
  • Having twins or more create complications
  • Stillbirth
  • Cesarean section or longer labor pain
  • Baby with Down’s syndrome
  • Pre-eclampsia this is a very dangerous condition for baby and mother both.

What women do to make her healthy late pregnancy?

The following are the things that you should keep in your mind before you plan to have a baby and these are:

  • Maintain your ideal body weight and it should not be more or less than your body mass index (BMI).
  • Stop smoking
  • Do regular physical activities
  • Eat a healthy and proper diet
  • Take folic acid for at least 2 months before conception
  • Reduce the intake of caffeine
  • Avoid alcohol or illegal drugs
  • Speak to your fertility expert about any existing medical problem
  • Get your sexually transmitted disease checked
  • Get your cervical screening within three years



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