How Many Types of Infertility are There?
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There are 2 types of infertility:
(i) Primary Infertility: Primary infertility is a type of infertility which refers to those couples who are not able to get pregnant after having regular intercourse for more than 1 year.
(ii) Secondary Infertility: This refers to the couples who are able to get pregnant once but for the second time they are not able to conceive a baby.
Causes of Infertility in women
The following are the causes of female infertility:
- When there is a blockage or damage to women fallopian tubes which result from the pelvic inflammatory disease that is usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis or adhesions.
- Endometriosis is another cause of female infertility where the endometrial tissue grows outside of the women uterus which may affect the function of women ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.
- Uterine or cervical abnormalities which mean there is an issue with opening the women cervix. Non – cancerous (benign) tumors which are presented in the uterine wall and may cause infertility by blocking women fallopian tubes.
- When women dealing with ovulation disorders which affect the release of her eggs from the ovaries. This is a condition of hormonal disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The women menstrual cycle can also be affected when there is too much thyroid hormone or too little thyroid are presented. Other causes which may affect the women fertility is excessive exercise, eating disorders, injury or tumors.
- When women are dealing with early menopause which means her ovaries stop working and her menstruation ends before the age 40 years. According to the study, this is an unknown cause of female infertility. There are certain factors that are associated with early menopause such as immune system diseases, genetic conditions, etc.
Causes of Infertility in men
The following are the causes of male infertility:
- If the male member is unable to deliver the sperm due to sexual problems, such as premature ejaculation; certain genetic diseases, blockage in his testicle; or damage or injury to the reproductive organs.
- If there is any damage due to cancer and its treatment which includes radiation or chemotherapy. Cancer treatment can impair sperm production and sometimes it is very severe.
- The men fertility can also be affected by the overexposure to certain environmental factors, which includes pesticides and other chemicals, and radiation. Smoking, alcohol, marijuana or other medications, such as antibiotics, anabolic steroids, etc. can also affect the men fertility. Excessive exposure to heat, such as in saunas or hot tubs may affect the production of sperm.
- If there is an abnormal production of sperm or the sperm function is affected due to undescended testicles, genetic defects, and health problems such as diabetes or infections will affect the male member fertility. If men have enlarged veins in his testes, this can also affect the quality of sperm.
Treatment of female infertility
The following are some common treatments to treat the female infertility factor and these are:
a) IVF: At Nepal Fertility Center, the fertility expert recommends the IVF treatment which is the first line treatment. This is a procedure in which your fertility expert will collect the eggs from women ovaries and mix them together with the sperms of her husband to facilitate the fertilization. Once the fertilization takes place, the resulted embryo will be placed into the uterus of the intended mother.
b) IVF with Egg Donor: The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal use this procedure for those couples where the female member is unable to produce enough mature eggs for fertilization. In this procedure, the fertility experts will borrow the eggs from healthy, fertile and young women who are under the age of 28 years and will fertilize her eggs with the sperms of the intended father to facilitate the fertilization. Once the fertilization occurs, the fertility expert will place the resulted embryo into the uterus of the intended mother and will continue to monitor the growth and the development of the fetus.
c) IVF with Surrogacy: This is a procedure which is usually recommended to those female members who are unable to carry a pregnancy in their own womb due to some medical illness. With the help of this procedure the couple will have their own baby as the fertility expert will fertilize the eggs of the surrogate mother with the sperm of intended father and after that she will place the resulted embryo into the uterus of surrogate mother who will carry the baby until full term and once the baby born she will hand-over the baby to his/her intended parents.
Treatment of male infertility
The following are some common treatments to treat the male infertility factor and these are:
a) ICSI: ICSI is an ART is a procedure in which the fertility expert will directly insert a single mature and healthy sperm into each egg of the women which help the couple in conceiving a baby.
b) Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT): This is the male infertility treatment where the fertilization will occur naturally and the fertility expert at Fertility Center Nepal will directly place the best-selected sperm inside the women fallopian tubes.
c) Hormonal treatment: The fertility expert will first recommend the male member to undergo for the hormone replacement before they suggest any surgery to them. With the help of the hormone replacement treatment fertility experts will able to treat the condition of male infertility which has been caused by the high or low levels of hormones.
d) Surgery: The fertility experts at Fertility Center Nepal will recommend the surgery as the last option when all other non-surgical treatments are failed to provide the desired results. The fertility expert will then perform surgery where they will extract the sperms by using the thin fine needle from the Testicle which is known as Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) or Epididymis, known as percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). In case, the fertility expert is unable to retrieve enough sperm through these two techniques then they will use other advanced technology which is testicular sperm extraction TESE. Once the sperms are retrieved, the fertility expert will mix them with the women egg to form an embryo and once the embryo gets developed the same will be placed into the uterus of the female partner.